The concept of alkali activated materials (AAM) as an alternative to Portland
cement has been known since at least 1908. Also, the durability of AAM in-service
has been demonstrated over several decades in Belgium, Finland, the former USSR
and China, and more recently in Australia. Nevertheless, fundamental research on
AAM has blossomed internationally only since the 1990s, and most of this work
has been focused on AAM microstructure with little emphasis on the prediction of
service life, durability and engineering properties. Until recently, the fi eld of AAM
has been viewed as an academic curiosity with potential in niche applications, but
not as a substitute for Portland cement in bulk applications.
This is a State of the Art Report resulting from the work of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM in the period 2007-2013. The Report summarises research to date in the area of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a particular focus on the following areas: binder design and characterisation, durability testing, commercialisation, standardisation, and providing a historical context for this rapidly-growing research field.