The modern wireless communication industry has put great demands on
circuit designers for smaller, cheaper transceivers in the gigahertz frequency
range. One tool which has assisted designers in satisfying these requirements is
the use of on-chip inductive elements (inductors and transformers) in silicon (Si)
radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuits (ICs). These elements allow greatly
improved levels of performance in Si monolithic low-noise amplifiers, power
amplifiers, up-conversion and down-conversion mixers and local oscillators.
Inductors can be used to improve the intermodulation distortion performance
and noise figure of small-signal amplifiers and mixers. In addition, the gain of
amplifier stages can be enhanced and the realization of low-cost on-chip local
oscillators with good phase noise characteristics is made feasible.
In order to reap these benefits, it is essential that the IC designer be able to
predict and optimize the characteristics of on-chip inductive elements. Accurate
knowledge of inductance values, quality factor (Q) and the influence of adjacent
elements (on-chip proximity effects) and substrate losses is essential. In
this book the analysis, modeling and application of on-chip inductive elements
is considered. Using analyses based on Maxwells equations, an accurate and
efficient technique is developed to model these elements over a wide frequency
range. Energy loss to the conductive substrate is modeled through several
mechanisms, including electrically induced displacement and conductive currents
and by magnetically induced eddy currents. These techniques have been
compiled in a user-friendly software tool ASITIC (Analysis and Simulation of
Inductors and Transformers for Integrated Circuits). This tool allows circuit
and process engineers to design and optimize the geometry of on-chip inductive
devices and the IC process parameters affecting their electrical characteristics.
Wireless RF and microwave ICs depend critically on passive devices, such as inductors, capacitors, and transformers. Passive devices allow the optimization of key RF circuit building blocks by minimizing noise, maximizing gain and frequency of operation, and minimizing power. The integration of passive devices on the Si IC substrate requires a critical understanding of substrate coupling and loss, including electrically induced conductive and displacement current flowing in the substrate as well as magnetically induced eddy currents. Design, Simulation and Applications of Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs provides a deep understanding of the physics involved in the operation of these devices at microwave frequencies. Additionally, the book tackles two critical blocks that depend critically on the passive devices, the voltage-controlled oscillator and a distributed amplifier. Design, Simulation and Applications of Inductors and Transformers for Si RF ICs will be of interest to RF and microwave integrated circuit engineers, computer aided designers, device physicists, and electromagnetic researchers, as well as power electronics engineers.