Sampling - Discrete time processing of continuous-time signals, Continuous-time processing of discrete-time signals, Changing the sampling rate using discrete-time processing. Transform Analysis of LTI Systems - The frequency response of LTI systems, System functions for systems characterized by LCCD (Linear Constant Coefficient Difference) equations, All-pass system, Minimum-phase systems, Linear systems with linear phase. Structures for Discrete-Time Systems - Block diagram and signal flow graph representation of LCCD (LCCD - Linear Constant Coefficient Difference) equations, Basic structures for IIR and FIR systems, Transposed forms. Filter Design Techniques - Analog filter design : Butterworth and Chebyshev. IIR filter design by impulse invariance and bilinear transformation, Design of FIR filters by windowing : Rectangular, Hanning, Hamming and Kaiser. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) : Properties of the DFT, Linear convolution using DFT, Efficient computation of the DFT: Decimation-in-time and decimation-in frequency FFT algorithms, Processing of speech signals: Vocoders, Linear predictive coders.