 In the 1950s we punished misbehaving students in middle school or junior high school by making them stay after school to do 100 multiplication or longdivision math problems. Mathematics was taught in a highly ordered and mechanically repetitive manner with the objective being to master basic arithmetic skills. A decade later New Math emerged as a response to the Soviet Union’s early dominance in the race to outer space. The focus in the classroom shifted from drill to conceptual understanding to prepare students for early exposure to advanced mathematics. This theoretical approach failed miserably because middle school students entering high school did not possess the arithmetic skills necessary to do calculations in mathematics and science courses.
Consequently, the 1970s saw a backlash and the BacktotheBasics movement emerged. During the last three decades we have witnessed the emergence of several more movements in mathematics education attempting to balance the mastery of computational skills and conceptual understanding. These movements included a problemsolving approach, a hightech calculator/computer approach, and a mathematical userfriendly approach. Why have all these movements fallen short? The numberone complaint about mathematics from students is: Math is boring! Perhaps, in the 21st century there should be a Math for Fun movement that makes mathematics exciting, challenging, and rewarding. 


Automated Reasoning: 4th International Joint Conference, IJCAR 2008, Sydney, NSW, Australia, August 1215, 2008, ProceedingsThis book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning, IJCAR 2008, held in Sydney, Australia, in August 2008. The 26 revised full research papers and 13 revised system descriptions presented together with 4 invited papers and a summary of the CASCJ4 systems competition were carefully...     Software Testing 2020
Software testing is at a very important crossroad, where it is going back to the roots on certain fronts while moving inexorably forward. For instance, test automation is growing in prominence, but manual testing is becoming a niche; we are increasingly collaborating with the developers, breaking the bounds of unrealistic... 
