This graduate-level textbook elucidates low-risk and fail-safe systems in mathematical detail. It addresses, in particular, problems where mission-critical performance is paramount, such as in aircraft, missiles, nuclear reactors and weapons, submarines, and many other types of systems where “failure” can result in overwhelming loss of life and property. The book is divided into four parts: Fundamentals, Electronics, Software, and Dangerous Goods. The first part on Fundamentals addresses general concepts of system safety engineering that are applicable to any type of system. The second part, Electronics, addresses the detection and correction of electronic hazards. In particular, the Bent Pin Problem, Sneak Circuit Problem, and related electrical problems are discussed with mathematical precision. The third part on Software addresses predicting software failure rates as well as detecting and correcting deep software logical flaws (called defects). The fourth part on Dangerous Goods presents solutions to three typical industrial chemical problems faced by the system safety engineer during the design, storage, and disposal phases of a dangerous goods’ life cycle.