Since the advent of computerized tomography in radiology, many imaging techniques have been introduced in medicine, science, and technology. This book describes the state of the art of the mathematical theory and numerical analysis of imaging. The authors survey and provide a unified view of imaging techniques, provide the necessary mathematical background and common framework, and give a detailed analysis of the numerical algorithms. This book not only reflects the theoretical progress and the growth of the field in the last 10 years but also serves as an excellent reference. It will provide readers with a superior understanding of the mathematical principles behind imaging and will enable them to write state-of-the-art software as a result. Some of the applications covered in the book include computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, emission tomography, electron microscopy, ultrasound transmission tomography, industrial tomography, seismic tomography, impedance tomography, and NIR imaging.