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Pulsed Laser Ablation of Solids: Basics, Theory and Applications

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The book introduces ‘the state of the art' of pulsed laser ablation and its applications. It is based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. The book reaches from the basics to advanced topics of pulsed laser ablation. Theoretical and experimental fundamental phenomena involved in pulsed laser ablation are discussed with respect to material properties, laser wavelength, fluence and intensity regime of the light absorbed linearly or non-linearly in the target material. The energy absorbed by the electrons leads to atom/molecule excitation, ionization and/or direct chemical bond breaking and is also transferred to the lattice leading to material heating and phase transitions. Experimental non-invasive optical methods for analyzing these phenomena in real time are described. Theoretical models for pulsed laser ablation and phase transitions induced by laser beams and laser-vapour/plasma interaction during the plume expansion above the target are also presented. Calculations of the ablation speed and dimensions of the ablated micro- and nano-structures are performed. The validity and required refinement of different models in different experimental conditions is provided. The pulsed laser deposition process which bases on collecting the ablated particles on a surface is analyzed in terms of efficiency and quality of the deposited films as a function of ambient conditions, target material, laser parameters and substrate characteristics. The interaction between the incident laser and the ablation plasma is analyzed with respect to its influence on the structures of the deposited films and its capacity to generate high harmonics and single attosecond pulses which are highly desirable in pump-probe experiments.

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The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory
The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory

Examine what would happen if we were to deploy blockchain technology at the sovereign level and use it to create a decentralized cashless economy. This book explains how finance and economics work today, and how the convergence of various technologies related to the financial sector can help us find solutions to problems,...

Lotus Notes R 6 Professional Projects
Lotus Notes R 6 Professional Projects

Use Lotus Notes R6 to accomplish real-world, professional tasks. Incorporating five hands-on projects, Lotus Notes R6 Professional Projects is your key to unlocking the power of this latest version of Lotus Notes. Each project focuses on a specific concept and is based on a real-world situation. You will be able to use the skills that...

Vitreoretinal Surgery
Vitreoretinal Surgery

This lavishly illustrated book covers the most common diseases, exploring appropriate approaches to a range of vitreoretinal problems. All common vitreoretinal procedures are explained step by step with diagrams and color photos. Finally, the book provides a basic electronic patient record system, which corresponds to the subject...


Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE Platform
Designing Enterprise Applications with the J2EE Platform
SINCE its introduction more than two years ago, the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), has rapidly established a new model for developing distributed applications. This model is based on well-defined components that can automatically take advantage of sophisticated platform services. These components can be developed according to standard...
Getting Started with p5.js: Making Interactive Graphics in JavaScript and Processing (Make)
Getting Started with p5.js: Making Interactive Graphics in JavaScript and Processing (Make)

With p5.js, you can think of your entire Web browser as your canvas for sketching with code!

Learn programming the fun way--by sketching with interactive computer graphics! Getting Started with p5.js contains techniques that can be applied to creating games, animations, and interfaces. p5.js is a new interpretation of...

Beginning Visual C# 2005 Express Edition: From Novice to Professional
Beginning Visual C# 2005 Express Edition: From Novice to Professional

In the 90s, Microsoft did the impossible and released a programming tool that let everyone write programs to run on Windows. I was so excited about that tool, Visual Basic, that I wrote a series of books on it and introduced nearly a quarter of a million people all over the world to programming.

Now Microsoft has done it again with the...

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