Since first developed in the early sixties, silicon chip technology has made vast leaps forward. From a rudimentary circuit with a mere handful of transistors, the chip has evolved into a technological wonder, packing millions of bits of information on a surface no larger that a human thumbnail. And most experts predict that in the near future, we will see chips with over a billion bits. Quantum dots are small devices that contain a tiny droplet of free electrons. They are fabricated in semiconductor materials and have typical dimensions ranging from nanometres to a few microns.The size and shape of these structures and therefore the number of electrons they contain can be precisely controlled; a quantum dot can have anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousands. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantised due to the confinement of electrons. Unlike atoms however, quantum dots can be easily connected to electrodes and are therefore excellent tools for studying atomic-like properties. This new book presents the latest research developments in the world.