There has been a revived interest in Raman amplification due to the availability of high pump powers and improvements in small core size fibers. Two general categories of Raman amplifiers exist: distributed and discrete, also known as DRAs. They improve the noise figure and reduce the nonlinear penalty of the amplifier, allowing for longer amplifiers spans, higher bit rates, closer channel spacings, and operation near the zero dispersion wavelength. DRAs are already becoming commonplace in most long-haul networks. Consequently, Raman amplifiers should see a wide range of deployment in the next few years. This edited monograph is written by leading experts in this area and is the first book entirely devoted to Raman amplification. Three sections include extensive background on Raman physics, descriptions of sub-systems and modules utilizing Raman technology, and a review of current state-of-the-art systems. Technologies presented include applications for long-haul and ultra-long-haul submarine, terrestrial, soliton, and high-speed systems. This book will be a resource for scientists and optical engineers in optoelectronics, fiber optics, telecommunication, and optical networks.