The past decade has seen unprecedented developments in the understanding of relativistic fluid dynamics in and out of equilibrium, with connections to astrophysics, cosmology, string theory, quantum information, nuclear physics and condensed matter physics. Romatschke and Romatschke offer a powerful new framework for fluid dynamics, exploring its connections to kinetic theory, gauge/gravity duality and thermal quantum field theory. Numerical algorithms to solve the equations of motion of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics as well as applications to various systems are discussed. In particular, the book contains a comprehensive review of the theory background necessary to apply fluid dynamics to simulate relativistic nuclear collisions, including comparisons of fluid simulation results to experimental data for relativistic lead-lead, proton-lead and proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The book is an excellent resource for students and researchers working in nuclear physics, astrophysics, cosmology, quantum many-body systems and string theory.