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Solar Variability and Planetary Climates (Space Sciences Series of ISSI)

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This book provides an updated overview of the processes determining the influence of solar forcing on climate. It discusses in particular the most recent developments regarding the role of aerosols in the climate system and the new insights that could be gained from the investigation of terrestrial climate analogues. The book’s structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005.

With a global average irradiance of 342 W/m2, the Sun is by far the largest source of energy for planet Earth. In comparison, the internal energy produced by Earth itself is only about 0.087 W/m2 (Pollack et al., 1993), which in turn is 3.5 times larger than the 0.025 W/m2 of heat produced by the burning of fossil fuels.

About 31% (31 units) of the solar energy which arrives at the top of the atmosphere is reflected back to space by scattering from clouds, aerosols, and the Earth’s surface. Almost 20 units of solar radiation are absorbed in the atmosphere. The remaining 49 units are absorbed at the surface. Evaporation of water at the Earth’s surface consumes 23 units, and 7 units are transferred to the atmosphere by heat conduction. On balance 19 units are lost from the Earth’s surface as infrared radiation, however consisting of 114 going upward and 95 returning from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface (see also Rosenfeld, 2006). There is thus a sixfold recycling of energy. This is the greenhouse effect, established by the presence of water vapor and of other greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs, in the atmosphere. Due to human activities the latter have been increasing in the atmosphere, causing climate warming through an energy imbalance of 2.5–3 W/m2, more than 100 times larger than the heat released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels.

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Strategic Thinking: A Nine Step Approach to Strategy and Leadership for Managers and Marketers
Strategic Thinking: A Nine Step Approach to Strategy and Leadership for Managers and Marketers


Now in its third edition, Strategic Thinking, takes you step by step through the questions to ask, in order to formulate strategies and write clear and concise strategic plans. Based on three core actions - creating knowledge, innovating ideas and implementing change -...

Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors
Structural Geology Algorithms: Vectors and Tensors

State-of-the-art analysis of geological structures has become increasingly quantitative but traditionally, graphical methods are used in teaching. This innovative lab book provides a unified methodology for problem-solving in structural geology using linear algebra and computation. Assuming only limited mathematical training, the book begins...

Mastering Python Networking: Your one-stop solution to using Python for network automation, DevOps, and Test-Driven Development, 2nd Edition
Mastering Python Networking: Your one-stop solution to using Python for network automation, DevOps, and Test-Driven Development, 2nd Edition

Master the art of using Python for a diverse range of network engineering tasks

Key Features

  • Explore the power of Python libraries to tackle difficult network problems efficiently and effectively
  • Use Python for network device automation, DevOps, and software-defined...

Engineering Analysis of Smart Material Systems
Engineering Analysis of Smart Material Systems
The field of smart materials has grown considerably in the past ten to fifteen years as topics have transitioned from basic research to commercial applications. In the beginning stages of my career it was still rather exotic for a device or structure to be called “smart.” It was the early 1990s, and while the...
Exploring the JDS Linux Desktop
Exploring the JDS Linux Desktop
The ideal guide to JDS, Exploring the JDS Linux Desktop is clear and direct, and carefully covers such housekeeping chores as setting up networking, updates, and backups. It enters into great depth concerning the key productivity tools every user needs: email, web browsing, instant messaging, word processing,...
Sams Teach Yourself Word 2003 in 24 Hours
Sams Teach Yourself Word 2003 in 24 Hours
For readers who are new to Word 2003 and want to get up and running quickly, Sams Teach Yourself Microsoft Word 2003 in 24 Hours will do the trick. This book includes shortcuts and ways to accomplish the most common tasks in Word. Readers are able to work at their own pace through the easily digestible, one-hour...
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