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Solar Variability and Planetary Climates (Space Sciences Series of ISSI)

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This book provides an updated overview of the processes determining the influence of solar forcing on climate. It discusses in particular the most recent developments regarding the role of aerosols in the climate system and the new insights that could be gained from the investigation of terrestrial climate analogues. The book’s structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005.

With a global average irradiance of 342 W/m2, the Sun is by far the largest source of energy for planet Earth. In comparison, the internal energy produced by Earth itself is only about 0.087 W/m2 (Pollack et al., 1993), which in turn is 3.5 times larger than the 0.025 W/m2 of heat produced by the burning of fossil fuels.

About 31% (31 units) of the solar energy which arrives at the top of the atmosphere is reflected back to space by scattering from clouds, aerosols, and the Earth’s surface. Almost 20 units of solar radiation are absorbed in the atmosphere. The remaining 49 units are absorbed at the surface. Evaporation of water at the Earth’s surface consumes 23 units, and 7 units are transferred to the atmosphere by heat conduction. On balance 19 units are lost from the Earth’s surface as infrared radiation, however consisting of 114 going upward and 95 returning from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface (see also Rosenfeld, 2006). There is thus a sixfold recycling of energy. This is the greenhouse effect, established by the presence of water vapor and of other greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CFCs, in the atmosphere. Due to human activities the latter have been increasing in the atmosphere, causing climate warming through an energy imbalance of 2.5–3 W/m2, more than 100 times larger than the heat released into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels.

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SFML Game Development
SFML Game Development

If you've got a firm grasp of C++ with a secret hankering to create a great game, this book is for you. Every practical aspect of programming an interactive game world is here - the only real limit is your imagination.

Overview

  • Develop a complete game throughout the book
  • Learn how to...
Control Systems Engineering
Control Systems Engineering

Highly regarded for its accessible writing and practical case studies, Control Systems Engineering is the most widely adopted textbook for this core course in Mechanical and Electrical engineering programs. This new sixth edition has been revised and updated with 20% new problems and greater emphasis on computer-aided design.

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Access Data Analysis Cookbook
Access Data Analysis Cookbook
If you have large quantities of data in a Microsoft Access database, and need to study that data in depth, this book is a data cruncher's dream. Access Data Analysis Cookbook offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Each recipe includes a...

Project Management for Business, Engineering, and Technology: Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition
Project Management for Business, Engineering, and Technology: Principles and Practice, 3rd Edition

Project Management for Business, Engineering and Technology, 3rd edition is a direct response to the ever-increasing need for better project management. First covering the essential background, from origins and philosophy to methodology, the main bulk of the book is dedicated to the concepts and techniques of practical...

Frommer's NYC Free & Dirt Cheap (Frommer's Free & Dirt Cheap)
Frommer's NYC Free & Dirt Cheap (Frommer's Free & Dirt Cheap)

Frommer's NYC Free & Dirt Cheap

  • Get accommodations for free using couch-surfing websites or enjoy dirt cheap stays at some unexpectedly posh hotels
  • Delicious meals, plenty under $5, in all the major neighborhoods
  • Free attractions, including museums with free hours
  • ...
Functional Programming and Input/Output (Distinguished Dissertations in Computer Science)
Functional Programming and Input/Output (Distinguished Dissertations in Computer Science)
A common attraction to functional programming is the ease with which proofs can be given of program properties. A common disappointment with functional programming is the difficulty of expressing input/output (I/O) while at the same time being able to verify programs. Here, the author shows how a theory of functional programming can be smoothly...
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