The purpose of The Electrical Engineering Handbook is to provide a comprehensive reference work covering the broad spectrum of electrical engineering in a single volume. It is written and developed for the practicing electrical engineers in industry, government, and academia. The goal is to provide the most up-to-date information in classical fields of circuits, electronics, electromagnetics, electric power systems, and control systems, while covering the emerging fields of VLSI systems, digital systems, computer engineering, computeraided design and optimization techniques, signal processing, digital communications, and communication networks. This handbook is not an all-encompassing digest of everything taught within an electrical engineering curriculum. Rather, it is the engineer’s first choice in looking for a solution. Therefore, full references to other sources of contributions are provided. The ideal reader is a B.S. level engineer with a need for a one-source reference to keep abreast of new techniques and procedures as well as review standard practices.