ULSI Technology describes the theoretical and practical aspects of the most advanced state of electronics technology-ultralarge-scale integration (ULSI), where an integrated circuit (IC) chip contains over 10 million semiconductor devices. With ULSI technology, the cost of electronics products will decrease while the system functionality and performance will increase. The ULSI chips will result in the realization of smart and brilliant electronic systems, and in the improvement of quality of life and global productivity.
To fabricate IC chips with such complexity, we have to employ the most sophisticated process equipment, to follow the most precise process steps, and to adopt the most stringent cleanroom specifications. The basic process steps for ICs were considered in VLSI Technology, 2nd Edition (McGraw-Hill, 1988). Because of their importance to ULSI circuits, topics such as cleanroom technology, wafer-cleaning technology, manufacturing technology, and the rapid thermal process, which were essentially not covered in the 1988 VLSI book, are extensively discussed in ULSI Technology. In addition, many key processes, such as lithography, etching, metallization, and process integration, have been totally revised and updated. However, because of space limitations, certain classic topics such as crystal growth, conventional thermal processes, analytical technologies, and yield are covered only briefly or not covered at all. We suggest that our readers consult VLSI Technology, 2nd Edition or details.